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Sending Email without a Client


Sending e-mail is typically done from an e-mail client such as Microsoft Outlook. There may be times when you wish you could send an e-mail message without needing a client application and thankfully there are a number of ways to accomplish this task. Troubleshooting SMTP can be done via telnet, you can send e-mail from a VBS script or using ASP code, and then there are tools like MAPISend and Blat that allow you to send email from the command line or a batch file.

Pickup Directory

The easiest way to send an e-mail message without a client is to drop a properly formatted text file into the Pickup directory on the server. RFC 822 defines the formatting standards for ARPA Internet text messages. Following the guidelines in RFC 822 you can easily create text files, that when copied into the Pickup directory, will be delivered to the specified mailbox.

When you install the SMTP service on a Windows 2000 or 2003 server a directory called Pickup is created under C:\Inetpub\Mailroot. Let’s look at an example.

Date: 27 Nov 2005 0852 GMT
To: “Fred Flintstone” [email protected]
From: Barney Rubble” [email protected]
Subject: Interested in Bowling Tonight

Are you interested in bowling tonight?

Saving that text to a file and copying it to the Pickup folder would send that e-mail message to Fred. The name of the file is irrelevant because as soon as it is sent the file is deleted. You can even add HTML code to the e-mail. Using HTML will require you to specify the MIME version, content type and encoding. For example:

Date: 27 Nov 2005 0852 GMT
To: “Fred Flintstone” [email protected]
From: “Barney Rubble” [email protected]
Subject: Interested in Bowling Tonight
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/html; charset=”iso-8859-1”
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable

b Are you interested in bowling tonight? /b

Now if you entered everything correctly, the user will receive the e-mail message. If they do not, look for it in the Badmail folder. If you find it in there, chances are it is not formatted properly. As you can see this method could be easily scripted.

MAPISend and Blat

MAPISend.exe is a command line tool that is available from the Exchange Server 2000 Resource Kit. You can use MAPISend to connect to a mailbox on your Exchange server and send an email message. There are a few basic switches you need to know in order to make it work.

  • -u is used to specify the profile
  • -r specifies the recipients e-mail address
  • -s specifies the subject of the e-mail message
  • -m specifies the body of the e-mail message

In order for MAPISend to work, a MAPI profile must exist on the computer that the e-mail message is being sent from. Let’s look at an example of the MAPISend command.

C:\ MAPISend –u “Exchange Profile” –r [email protected] –s “Interested in Bowling Tonight?” –m “Hi Fred Are you interested in bowling tonight? Barney”

Pretty simple isn’t it? This command can be very useful if you wish to send a message once a batch job has completed running. The message can be sent anywhere. I use this command to send me an e-mail to the SMS address of my Smartphone when certain automated tasks are complete.

If you do not have a copy of the Exchange Server 2000 Resource Kit there is another option called Blat. Blat is a free, command line, SMTP mailer application. It is very similar to MAPISend; however it does not require a mail profile to be present on the sending computer. The important command line switches you need to know are:

  • -t specifies the sender’s e-mail address
  • -r specifies the recipient’s e-mail address
  • -subject specifies the subject

The only big difference between MAPISend and Blat is the body of a message sent with Blat is pulled from a TXT file.

Blat is also very useful for sending messages from batch files to SMS addresses or just regular e-mail addresses.


Knowing how to send SMTP commands via telnet is useful for testing firewalls and determining if a mail server is an open relay. Open relays are bad, spammers use them to flood inboxes with junk mail and, if you are running an open relay long enough, you could get added to one of many real-time blacklists (RBL). Getting off a RBL can be a very difficult task.

To send an e-mail message via telnet requires a few things, you need to know the IP address or fully qualified domain name of the server, the SMTP port it is running on (usually TCP 25) and some SMTP commands. Let’s look at an example. Start by opening a telnet session to your Exchange server.

C:\ telnet 25

Figure 1 shows a typical set of SMTP commands used to send an email from one user to another. The yellow dots are only there for your reference as these are the commands that you must enter.

The first command you have to send is EHLO, which will trigger a number 250 response codes with information on the capabilities of the Exchange or SMTP server. Next, the MAIL FROM specifies whom the mail is being sent from. The RCPT TO will specify the recipient of the message. This is followed by the DATA command. Enter the body of the e-mail message after the DATA command. Once you are ready to send the message press the Enter key, followed by a period, then another Enter. Finally enter Quit to end the telnet session.

Sending e-mail via telnet is an excellent way of testing for an open relay. The above example demonstrated an e-mail message being sent within the domain. If the server were operating as an open relay you would be able to send email to any other domain. By default Exchange server does not allow this to happen and you would get an error message after entering the RCPT TO line. If you are able to send to an outside domain, it is a good idea to check your configuration and ensure that the server is not operating as an open relay.


There are a number of ways to send e-mail messages from a VBS script, too many to cover in one article. Sending e-mail via a VBS script is a handy way to add e-mail notifications to any VBS script you may be using. If you have Outlook installed on the client machine, e-mail can be sent via MAPI. On the other hand, if you have the SMTP service component of IIS installed you can use it and the CDONTS.NewMail object to send a message. Collaboration Data Objects for Windows NT Server (CDONTS) is a component that has been included with all versions if IIS, with the exception of IIS 5.1 in Windows XP.

Using CDONTS and some ASP code it is easy to send e-mail from a webpage. The following is an example of using ASP, the SMTP service and CDONTS to send e-mail.


Sending e-mail messages is something we all do on a daily basis, so often that it comes as second nature. Using some of these alternative methods will allow you to automate the process and implement the ability to send e-mail to scripts.

Note: The section on CDONTS mentions that it is not available in Windows XP however you can use CDOSYS. You can also use CDOSYS on your Windows 2000/2003 servers if you wish.


Secured Credit Business Loans

Assets are used as collateral to secure payment if the loan goes into default. The collateral used for securing the loan will determine the amount of the loan.

Preparation is most important when applying for a secured business loan.

The requirements are different and you can expect for a lot more paperwork Below are a few items which can be used as collateral along with tips before you apply.

Types of Business Collateral

Real Property
The business owner can pledge a mortgage interest in real property as security for a business loan. That real property can be commercial or personal residences. However, pledging personal residences as security may cause conflicts with lenders and borrowers.

A lender may justify this requirement by seeking to secure the personal guaranty of the business loan. Business owners may choose to pass on type of loan as foreclosure is too risky to pledge your personal property.

Personal Property
A lien interest in personal property may be pledged to secure a business loan. If the business owner chooses this option the following documentation is helpful to evaluate the assets:

  • Description
  • Appraisal
  • Photographs
  • Price Quotations

An automobile, in good condition, can actually be used as collateral. Of course you must own the automobile free and clear and the following documents must accompany the loan application:

Accounts Receivable and Inventory
Borrowers can pledge current business assets as collateral but should be aware that certain documentation helps lenders properly evaluate the assets and may be required.

  • Inventory valuation
  • Inventory report
  • Bad debt schedule
  • Age of accounts receivables
  • Borrowing base certificates
  • Customer lists

Life Insurance
Borrowers may pledge a security interest in the cash surrender value of a life insurance policy to secure a business loan.

Business owners with this type of collateral may pledge security interest to secure a business loan. Borrowers should be prepared to present the lender with brokerage statements or a schedule of the securities portfolio with up-to-date market price quotes. If the borrower is using closely held securities as collateral, a memorandum regarding the method of valuation and recent financial statement of the entity should be prepared.

Deposit Account or Certificates
Lenders will require a schedule of accounts if depository accounts are used as security. The type of account, current interest paid, maturity date and name of the depository along with recent statements should be given to the lender. IRA accounts, 401k accounts and Keogh accounts cannot be used as collateral. It is against the law.

Be Prepared
Small business owners are sometimes ill-prepared when applying for secured business loans. Current, detailed, itemized and in some cases professional reports, must accompany loan applications.

Borrowers are sometimes surprised at the low valuation lenders give to collateral assets. Be prepared for the lender to discount the market values of collateral assets as the lender must maintain a safety margin to counter depreciation of the assets.

Borrowers can protect themselves from a lender’s conservative valuations by providing the lender with recent comparable sales records for real property, advertisements and reports on similar assets to those offered as collateral.

Collateral is an important determinant lenders use to qualify secured loan applications. To move the process along as smoothly as possible, prepare a precise itemization and description of your collateral before submitting the loan application.

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Our rates are seasonally adjusted. We invite you to review each of our rate sheets. If you have any questions, please give us a call. Also, for your convenience, we have a PDF file containing all of our rates for the season. Please click here to download a PDF copy. You ll need the Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this file.

  • Daily Rental Rates
  • 5-Day Package Pricing
  • 7-Day Package Pricing

*NOTE: ALL MAJOR HOLIDAYS REQUIRE PEAK SEASON RATES AND THREE CONSECUTIVE NIGHTS REQUIRED. All cabins have air conditioning and heat. All rates above are based on double occupancy (2 Adults). Each additional guest is an additional $10.00 per person per night. All reservations require a $200.00 secuirity deposit atleast one day prior to arrival via credit card. This deposit will be a hold placed on the funds and will be released if inspection is complete without any damages incurred during that particular guest’s stay. ALL 5 and 7 DAY PACKAGES REQUIRE A TWO DAY DEPOSIT. Stays are only booked upon availability. ***Additional notes for Individual night rentals: Sunday – Thursday night rates require 2 consecutive night weekday minimum or peak rates apply. +weekend which are Friday and Saturday nights are priced as below. Single nights are charged peak season rate and will be charged a cleaning fee determined on size of cabin. We reserved the right to adjust rates throughout the year where needed without notice.

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Security auditing tools

How can you confirm your systems are configured appropriately and maintain that configuration over time? In our tests, Preventsys Network Audit and Policy Assurance 1.5 proved to be a flexible, easy-to-use product that earned accolades as a World Class Award designee.

The growing number of security policies and regulations companies are required to follow – the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, for example – creates high demand for policy-compliance products. But how can you confirm your systems are configured appropriately and maintain that configuration over time? In our tests, Preventsys Network Audit and Policy Assurance 1.5 proved to be a flexible, easy-to-use product that earned accolades as a World Class Award designee.

Preventsys takes the results of vulnerability assessment scans and compares them with defined policies, looking for systems that are out of compliance. By default, open source tools Nessus and Nmap are used for scanning, but many third-party products, including Internet Security Systems’ Internet Scanner and eEye Digital Security’s Retina, also are supported. Preventsys uses XML at its core, so you are only limited by your ability to get your audit results in an XML format that the Preventsys product can then analyze.

The system comprises three main servers: the audit, compliance and database servers. The audit server runs scans. The compliance server performs all the analysis and processing of the scan results. Users tap into the whole system via a Web-based console that’s communicating with the compliance server. The database (PostgreSQL by default, but Oracle also is supported) server stores all the data, both raw and analyzed.

Preventsys shipped three Shuttle systems containing 2.4- or 2.8-GHz Pentium 4 processors, each with 1G byte of RAM for our testing, but customers only receive the software and professional services for installation. The Web interface is intuitive and easy to use. We created new users, defined networks and hosts, and launched a scan in a matter of minutes.

We were impressed with the level of detail at all configuration levels. For example, user permissions are segregated between scanning, analysis, reports, remediation updates and remediation assignment activities. This segregation, combined with definable network/host permissions, means you could tailor its security parameters to fit almost any organizational structure.

Preventsys includes an array of default policies, such as the SANS Top 20 and or your own list of e-commerce servers. A number of policies also are developed from National Security Agency and National Institute of Standards and Technology guidelines. Additional policies that Preventsys developed are included in the built-in Policy Library Update function of the product. A rollback function also is available for easy removal.

Preventsys provides several methods to create and update policies. The most direct is to modify the XML code yourself. For a more template-driven approach, the Web interface includes some policy development functionality. A third option is to use the separate Windows-based Policy Lab application that Preventsys provides to design and create new policies.

Preventsys can be configured in a number of ways, support myriad scan reports in XML and run any policy created against any scan data. A strong feature is the ability to re-analyze scan data, meaning you can run a policy comparison against scan data at any time. This works great for those companies that have specific windows for systems scans, but might need to check new policy compliance at any time.

Reporting is another strong point of Preventsys. The system includes a number of default reports, including executive summaries, compliance, trends, remediation tasks and individual network/ host reports. Each report can be published so it is easily accessible through the administration interface. Additionally, reports can be exported to a PDF and saved offline.

Preventsys has integrated the ability to calculate your financial risk. When defining assets within the system, you can enter the cost of the system in terms of the price of the machine or the value of the data on that machine. These numbers are used during the report-generation phase to calculate various risk levels if either the machine or its data is compromised.

Remediation assignments – where you define who on your staff is responsible for fixing certain vulnerabilities – are easily managed through the system. Because Preventsys supports a number of different tools, you can hand out remediation assignments for vulnerabilities detected from multiple scanners from this central place. Once assigned, the assignee then can update the task with the results of their investigation and note any action taken as a result.

Preventsys also can include a wireless module that will analyze a wireless infrastructure for security weaknesses. We did not test this module.

Overall, Preventsys provides a strong central control point for vulnerability analysis, policy compliance, remediation tracking and reporting. With the growing list of security requirements, centralized policy compliance reporting eases the job of security managers.

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Security Systems & Services

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Our aim is to provide timely and quality service to the residents of Houston when it comes to their car service needs. If you�re looking for Houston�s best auto locksmith, then look no further because we have the equipment, skills and competencies, and the quality of customer service that will meet your every locksmithing need in a way that ensures your satisfaction.

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Property for Rent in Lagos – Real Estate Nigeria | Lamudi

Properties for Rent in Lagos Offer Untold Benefits

Lagos state is the financial and economic nerve centre of Nigeria. It is divided mainly into Lagos Island and Lagos mainland and it used to be the capital of Nigeria before the Federal Capital Territory was carved out. Ikeja is the capital of the mtetropolis, and is home to perhaps the greatest variety of properties for rent in Lagos. inhabiting expensive, cheap, grand and smaller houses, apartments, and land for sale as well as for rent.

On the Island, we have Lagos Island and Victoria Island. which serve as the business and financial hub of the state, respectively. There are several financial institutions and multinational firms in the state, offering employment to the local populace as well as increasing the demand and supply of commercial properties for rent in Lagos. Thus, due to the concentration of business organizations there, many organizations want to have office spaces and a presence on the Island, consequently leading to a highly sought after choice of residence to the working class.

Properties for rent in Lagos. Victoria Island are particularly expensive, especially as it is the premier service hub of Nigeria and West Africa. There are other exclusive neighbourhoods that are home to the elite and the bourgeoisie; places like Banana Island and Park view estate in Ikoyi. which contain some of the most beautiful Lagos homes.

Property for Rent in Lagos is the Best Real Estate in Nigeria

In Yaba. due to the numerous tertiary institutions there, beyond the standard flats and housing, there are several residential options to cater for the student populace and the young working class who work on the Island, such as studio apartments for rent.

Ikeja, the mainland business district is divided into different axes based on the predominant businesses. There is the Anifowose corridor referred to as ‘computer village’ with several traders who specialize in sales of technological gadgets; the Adeniyi Jones with several offices; and Opebi which is the retail fashion hub. Therefore, the commercial success of the city is drawing in large numbers of new residents in search of jobs and opting for high-quality properties for rent in Lagos.

Cheaper rental properties abound in suburbs like Ikotun, Iyana Ipaja, Abule egba, which are still developing. Rental properties in Lagos are mostly either for residential or commercial purposes; with buildings and land being leased out for use as workshops (mechanics and car wash), warehouses, offices, and farms.

Prices vary according to areas and property types and a lovely 4 & 5 bedroom terrace house in a place like Richmond Gate would go for about ₦ 75,000,000 per annum. In Ikeja, banking space at CBD can be rented at ₦15,000/sqm per annum. Beware of shady agents and try to liaise with listed and certified estate agents.

Happy hunting!

Prices Calculated in 2015

#property buy

Guide to Buying Property in Portugal

Property Market in Portugal

The laid-back Portuguese lifestyle has long drawn British home hunters and the Algarve offers a less-developed alternative to the Spanish Costa del Sol.

New construction along its beautifully varied coastlines was tightly controlled, the country s property market never boomed like Spain s, but is in far better health as a result, albeit sluggish since the global downturn.

The Portuguese government has been savvy about attracting overseas buyers back to kick-start the property market with a couple of successful incentives its own golden visa scheme which has had great take-up from non-EU investors spending 500,000 or over.

Plus the Non-Habitual Tax Residency scheme (NHR) has attracted European expats for its low or zero income tax rates.

So both the Lisbon and Algarve markets have now begun to recover, although prices are still down in the latter especially outside the big-name golf resorts. With lending options beginning to widen in late 2014 it s a great time to buy a Portuguese home.

Where to buy Property in Portugal

Most UK buyers head the Algarve for its Mediterranean climate, beautiful beaches and world-class golf resorts. Faro airport is well-supplied with flights and is an easy half-hour drive from popular spots on the central Algarve.

The Golden Triangle area around the five-star resorts of Quinta do Lago and Vale do Lobo and the town of Almancil certainly draws many buyers but you ll pay a premium for buying there. You can buy a three-bedroom apartment at Quinta do Lago for 500,000, but villas tend to top 1 million.

Your money goes further if you head inland you might get a lovely four-bed villa in the hills near Loule for 600,000; or west to the popular resorts of Vilamoura (two-bed apartments for 100,000) or Albufeira . similarly priced and also a holiday rentals hotspot popular with the northern European snowbirds who winter on the Algarve.

The stretch between Faro and Albufeira is a little too developed or pricey for some and your money will go further if you head west or east.

West around the attractive fishing town of Lagos has been very popular in recent years, and prices have fallen by a good 30 per cent. You ll get a villa for 200,000-300,000. The resort of Praia da Luz is also popular you ll easily get a three-bed villa for 250,000 or a quaint little fisherman s house for 100,000.

The Eastern Algarve around Tavira is also worth checking out, a lovely little stretch of little harbour towns, sand bars and beaches (and even its own classy golf resort, Monte Rei) from which Spain is easily reached. You ll fine plenty of choice with a budget of 200,000, and the nearby little village of Cabanas is even more affordable.

Or go inland, where in the vibrant little village of Sao Bras de Alportel you can get a choice of two-bed properties for 90,000.

Lisbon is a fabulous city being rejuvenated by overseas buyers especially Chinese investors and the popular suburbs of Cascais and Estoril appeal to expats and retirees for whom the Algarve is too sleepy or seasonal.

South of Lisbon is the rural Alentejo region that attracts discerning travelers but fewer home hunters than the Silver Coast north past Lisbon. Here, where the rolling hills and vineyards meet the Atlantic in hundreds of kilometres of sandy beaches there are some striking contemporary villas, especially around Obidos. Apartments (and smaller townhouses) start at 100,000 to 150,000, villas from 250,000.

How to Buy Property in Portugal

There are two stages to the buying process. The first is the promissory contract (contrato de promessa de compra e venda) between buyer and seller, on the condition of the property.

A deposit is normally paid at this time, usually from 10-25 per cent of the purchase price. Following this, the lawyer does searches and checks for encumbrances or mortgages on the property.

The second part of the transaction is the escritura de compra e venda, or final deed, and this is the point at which the property ownership is transferred to the buyer. As with the promissory contract, it is signed in front of the notary (notario). The final contract is then sent to the Land Registry.

Portugal Buying Costs

The biggest cost is property transfer tax (IMT), paid on properties over 92,407 on a sliding scale from 2-8 per cent.

There is a Stamp Duty that is a fixed rate of 0.8 per cent. Notary, admin and registration fees are 1.5-2.5 per cent, and legal fees 1-2 per cent, of the purchase price. The seller pays the estate agency fees.

You’ll also need to find the most cost-effective, safe and easy way to move your money to Portugal to complete your purchase.Bank charges and fluctuating exchange rates can both have an impact on your overall cost – but you can save up to 4% of the cost by working with a specialist currency firm. They can help you achieve currency exchange rates better than the banks, and reduce the risk of your international payments increasing.

On a 100,000 exchange, a currency specialist can save you up to 4,000 by providing better rates compared to your high street bank.

Property in Portugal: Need to Know

Ensure that your lawyer checks that plans of the property held by the local authorities that refer specifically to the property agree with the existing construction.

You should request from your local lawyer a report on title, stating that the property is free of any charges (or that such charges will be removed before completion) and you should also seek advice on the planning rules for the area.

Download our Free Guide

If you would like more detail about some aspects of buying a property in Portugal, then download our FREE guid e to buying property in Portugal, sponsored by Ideal Homes Portugal.

It covers the popular regions of Portugal, a run-down of the Portuguese property market including the types of property and things to watch. We give tips on legal, currency and tax as well as the steps involved in the buying process.


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Guide to Buying Property in Italy

Property Market in Italy

Whether it s a Tuscan farmhouse, Sardinian villa or an apartment with views of Lake Como, we find it hard to resist Italy. But what can you buy there and how do you go about it?

Nothing has showcased Italy any better than the wedding of the world s most eligible bachelor, George Clooney, in one of the most romantic cities of the world, Venice, in Autumn 2014. But Lake Como resident George is not the only one with a passion for this historic and effortlessly stylish nation that remains one of our top five second-home locations.

A vast choice of ancient hill-top towns, medieval cities and characterful farmhouses are now within easy reach thanks to low-cost airlines, and are now more affordable: property prices are still sluggish as the country has been slow to emerge from the global downturn.

Fashionable areas such as Tuscany remain 30 per cent down on the 2008 peak although areas dominated by wealthy Italians the Lakes, Liguria . Sardinia – have held their value better.

If you re a cash buyer (mortgages are hard to get) and can stomach doing business with the oft maddeningly laid-back Italians, then purchasing an Italian home can be immensely rewarding. Just ask George

Where to buy Property in Italy

Historically the Lakes in the north of Italy were the first areas to attract overseas second-home owners, and for their beauty, accessibility and dual season appeal. Lake Como also home to Sir Richard Branson is more fashionable than ever although can be surprisingly affordable, with apartments with a view for 100,000.

Most popular with the Milanese, Maggiore is elegant but similarly priced, whilst Garda tends to appeal to the actively inclined. Iseo and Orta are less popular, however Lugano remains sought-after for those after a mix of Swiss efficiency (or tax regime) coupled with Italian culture.

Tuscany and Umbria then became a big hit in the late 1900s when many buyers dreamt of a farmhouse amid rolling hills within handy distance of those beautiful medieval villages or Renaissance cities. The area in Tuscany around Arezzo . Siena and Florence the so-called Chiantishire became fashionable and expensive and you won t get much change from 1 million for a well-presented six-bedroom farmhouse with a pool in Sting and Trudie Styler s patch of Arezzo.

That said, some prefer to escape the tourist buses and communities of British expats and Lucca slightly north has been growing in popularity; as has the Garfagnana, Lunigiana or Bagni di Luca where prices drop you can get a two-bed home for less than 100,000. In neighbouring Umbria, the area around Lake Trasimeno and nearby Perugia remains of high interest.

Le Marche . south of Tuscany, is also now firmly on the radar of overseas buyers, and in San Benedetto del Tronto you are both close to airports and beaches. The area is popular with second-home owners from Rome, so you are looking at around 125,000 for an apartment. It s close to the border with the Abruzzo region, a wonderfully undiscovered and green area which is highly affordable find plenty of options for 50,000 to 100,000. You can do ski and beach in the same day in some!

Italy s coastal areas have grown in popularity, with Puglia leading the way after a couple of years of high-profile owners, celebrity weddings and even a chick-flick in 2014. British buyers tend to love the area around Ostuni and Martina Franca

where houses are available for well under 100,000. Heading back north Liguria has also gained greater interest, and in this stylish area close to the Cote D Azur in the attractive town of Imperia you can get an apartment for 150,000.

If the Italian islands appeal, head to Sardinia for affordability (outside the chic Costa Smeralda), and in the lovely little beach town of Valledoria . you can buy a two-bedroom apartment for 80,000; Sicily tends to be surprisingly expensive due to lack of supply.

How to Buy Property in Italy

The buying process starts with a proposta d acquisto, a short contract and small deposit (up to 5 per cent) taking the property off the market while basic checks are made. The deposit is usually repaid if the purchase fails due to legal problems.

Next is the legally binding preliminary contract, contratto preliminare di vendita, which defines all selling conditions such as a description of the property, rights of way, payments and timing, ownership rights etc. On signing this contract, the purchaser pays a deposit of approximately 20 per cent of the property price.

At this point, a notary (notaio) is appointed, the independent legal body that prepares and coordinates the searches and deeds, acting on behalf of the vendor and purchaser. The final contract (atto or rogito) is signed at the notary s office.

Purchase taxes and notary fees are paid by the buyer at the signing as well as the balance of the purchase price. Once all documentation is signed and all monies paid, you will be handed the keys to your Italian property.

Buying Costs for Property in Italy

Purchase costs of between 10 to 20 per cent are typical, but can be higher on low-value homes (some fees are fixed, nor necessarily a percentage of the value of the property). Purchase costs are currently being reviewed by the Italian Parliament so check with your agent and lawyer for the latest information.

Properties bought from a company or business (ie builder or developer) will be charged IVA (or VAT) instead of purchase tax. This will typically be 10 per cent of the property s purchase price.

On top of these purchase taxes you will also need to be notary fees (1.5 to 5 per cent of declared price); legal fees if you use an independent solicitor (1- 2 per cent); maybe a mortgage tax/arrangement fee (if applicable) plus some small State/Cadastral taxes.

You will also pay estate agent commission: a hefty 6 per cent is split between buyer and seller (plus VAT) but do negotiate!

You’ll also need to find the most cost-effective, safe and easy way to move your money to Italy to complete your purchase. Bank charges and fluctuating exchange rates can both have an impact on your overall cost – but you can save up to 4% of the cost by working with a specialist currency firm. They can help you achieve currency exchange rates better than the banks, and reduce the risk of your international payments increasing.

Buying Property in Italy – Need to Know:

The preliminary contract is legally binding. You won t be gazumped and if the seller changes their mind, they must return the deposit paid to you, the buyer, plus the same amount again. If you pull out, you will lose your entire deposit.

Buying costs can be high (see above) but also budget for home-ownership. You will need to pay several taxes including the new three-part service tax, the IUC, that was introduced in 2014 and is based on the value and location of your property.

Download our Free Guide

If you would like more detail about some aspects of buying a property in Italy, then download our FREE guid e to buying property in Italy.

It covers the popular regions of Italy, a run-down of the Italian property market including the types of property and things to watch. We give tips on legal, currency and tax as well as the steps involved in the buying process.

#hoses for rent

Property in Sofia region for sale and rent

Sofia is not only the capital of Bulgaria but the state’s heart. The city is a cultural, administrative and industrial center and its motto is rightly It Grows but Does not Age. Sofia is the biggest city in Bulgaria and it is surrounded by picturesque mountains – Stara Planina Mountain to the north, Vitosha Mountain to the south, Lozenska Mountain to the southeast and Lyulin Mountain to the southwest.

With a population of over 1.5 million people, together with thousands of businesses, foreign Embassies, branches of international companies and organizations, corporate HQs and public administration buildings, Sofia has the most developed and dynamic property market in Bulgaria.

This is also valid for the rental market, where both high demand and high price levels are observed. Currently the highest rental income and profit for residential properties can be found in Sofia but, understandably, this is also where you will find the highest prices!

In the last year and a half the property market in Bulgaria changed as a result of the global crunch. In the beginning of 2010 in the city property segment and mostly in Sofia we are witnessing a calmer market which is overcoming the initial shock of the crisis. According to data of BULGARIAN PROPERTIES the decrease in property prices in and near Sofia is smaller compared to other parts of Bulgaria – 23% in 2009 compared to 2008 in Sofia, the average decrease around the country for the same period being 36% (based on actual concluded deals by the company). Experts do not forecast another so significant a decrease in prices of properties for sale and rent in Bulgaria making the moment right for striking a bargain property deal in the area of Sofia.

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